Patterson, H. K., A. Boettcher, R. H. Carmichael. Biomarkers of dissolved oxygen stress in oysters: a tool for restoration and management efforts. PLOS ONE. 9(8):e104440.

D'Ambra, I. R. H. Carmichael, W. M. Graham. Determination of δ13C and δ15N and trophic fractionation in jellyfish: implications for food web ecology. Mar. Biol. 161:473-480.


D'Ambra, I. D., W.M. Graham, R. H. Carmichael, A. Malej, V. Onofri. Predation patterns and prey quality of medusae in a semi-enclosed marine lake: implications for food web energy transfer in coastal marine ecosystems. J. Plankton Res. 35(6):1305-1312.


Carmichael, R. H.*, A. Jones, H. Patterson, W. Walton, A. Perez-Huerta, E. Overton, M. Dailey, K. Willett. Assimilation of oil-derived elements by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 12787-12795. pdf

Prado, P., R.H. Carmichael, S. Watts, J. Cebrian, K. Heck.  Diet-dependent Δ13C and Δ15N fractionation among sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) tissues: Implications for food web models. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.  462:175-190. pdf

Carmichael, R. H., W. Graham, A. Aven, G. Worthy, S. Howden. Unusual cold and Deepwater Horizon: Were multiple stressors a ‘perfect storm’ for bottlenose dolphins in 2011? PloS ONE 7(7): e41155. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041155. pdf

Carmichael, R. H., E. Brush. Three Decades of Horseshoe Crab Rearing: A Review of Condition for Captive Growth and Survival. Reviews in Aquaculture 4:32–43. pdf

Carmichael, R. H., A. C. Shriver, I. Valiela. Bivalve Response to Estuarine  Eutrophication: The Balance Between Enhanced Food Supply and Habitat Alterations. Journal of Shellfish Research. 31(1):1-11. pdf

Carmichael, R. H.*, W. Walton, and H. Clark. Bivalve enhanced N removal from coastal estuaries. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 69:1131-1149. pdf

Biancani, J., R. H. Carmichael, J. Daskin, W. Burkhardt, K. Calci. Seasonal and Spatial Effects of Wastewater Effluent on Growth, Survival, and Accumulation of Microbial Contaminants by Oysters in Mobile Bay, Alabama.  Estuaries and Coasts 35:121-131. First published online Sep 2011, Selected as CESN highlight article pdf

Drymon, J. M., S. P. Powers, R. H. Carmichael. Trophic Plasticity in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from the north central Gulf of Mexico. Environ. Biol. Fish 95:21-35. First published online Sep 2011. pdf


Graham, W., R. H. Condon, R. H. Carmichael, I. D’Ambra, H. K. Patterson, F. J. Hernandez, Jr. Oil Carbon Entered the Coastal Planktonic Food Web During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Environ. Res. Lett. 5(045301):1-6. pdf

Kovacs, C. J., J. H. Daskin, H. Patterson, R. H. Carmichael. Crassostrea virginica shells record local variation in wastewater inputs to a coastal estuary.  Aquat. Biol. 9:77-84. pdf

Carmichael, R. H., C. J. Kovacs. Comment on Watanabe et al. (2009). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60:315-315. pdf


Pabody, C. M., R. H. Carmichael, L. Rice, M. Ross.  A new sighting network adds to 20 years of historical data on fringe West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Alabama waters.  Gulf of Mexico Science. 1:52-61. pdf

Smith, D. R., M. J. Millard, R. H. Carmichael. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations.  p.361-386. In J.T. Tanacredi et al. (eds.), Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer pdf

Carmichael, R. H., E. Gaines, Z. Sheller, A. Tong, A. Clapp, I. Valiela.  Diet composition of juvenile horseshoe crabs:  Implications for growth and survival of natural and cultured stocks.  p.521-534. In J.T. Tanacredi et al. (eds.), Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer pdf


Carmichael, R. H., T. Hattenrath, I. Valiela, R. H. Michener. C stable isotopes in the shell of Mercenaria mercenaria trace wastewater inputs from watersheds to estuarine ecosystems. Aquat. Biol. 4:99-111. Feature Article. pdf

Daskin, J. H., K. Calci, W. Burkhardt III, R. H. Carmichael. Use of N stable isotope and microbial analyses to define wastewater influence in Mobile Bay, AL. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56:860-868. pdf


Bowen, J. K. Kroeger, G. Tomasky, W. J. Pabich, , M. L. Cole, R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela. A review of land-sea coupling by groundwater discharge pf nitrogen to New England estuaries: Mechanisms and effects. Applied Geochemistry. 22:175-191. pdf


Carmichael, R. H. and I. Valiela. Coupling of near-bottom seston and surface sediment composition: Changes with nutrient enrichment and implications for estuarine food supply and biogeochemical processing.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 50:97-105.  pdf


Carmichael, R. H., A. Shriver, I. Valiela. Changes in shell and soft tissue growth, tissue composition, and survival of quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria, and softshell clams, Mya arenaria, in response to eutrophic-driven changes in food supply and habitat. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 313: 75-104. pdf

Rutecki, D., R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela.  Magnitude of harvest of Atlantic horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, in Pleasant Bay, MA.  Estuaries 27: 179-187.  pdf 

Carmichael, R. H., B. Annette, I. Valiela. N loading to Pleasant Bay, Cape Cod:  Application of models and stable isotopes to detect incipient nutrient enrichment of estuaries.  Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48:137-143.  pdf

Carmichael, R. H. Effects of eutrophication on Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria: Growth, survival, and physiological responses to changes in food supply and habitat in estuaries receiving different N loads.  Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University.

Carmichael, R. H., D. Rutecki, B. Annett, E. Gaines, I. Valiela.  Position of horseshoe crabs in estuarine food webs: N and C stable isotopic study of foraging ranges and diet composition. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 299:231-253.  pdf


Carmichael, R. H., D. Rutecki, I. Valiela.  Abundance and population structure of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, in Pleasant Bay, Cape Cod.  Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 246:225-239.  pdf

O'Connell, C. W., S. P. Grady, A. S. Leschen, R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela.  Stable isotopic assessment of site loyalty and relationships between size and trophic position of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, in Cape Cod estuaries.  Biol. Bull. 205:254-255. pdf


Weiss, E., R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela.  The effects of eutrophication on growth of quahogs and softshell clams through changes in food supply.  Aquaculture  211:275-289. pdf

Shriver, A. C., R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela.  Growth, condition, reproductive potential, and mortality of bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, in response to eutrophic-driven changes in food resources.  J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 279: 21-40.  pdf

Gaines, E., R. H. Carmichael, S. P. Grady, I. Valiela.  Stable isotopic evidence for changing nutritional sources of juvenile horseshoe crabs.  Biol. Bull. 203: 228-230. pdf

Suggs, D., R. H. Carmichael, S. P. Grady, I. Valiela.  Effects of individual size on pairing in horseshoe crabs. Biol. Bull. 203:225-227. pdf           


Grady, S., D. Rutecki, R. H. Carmichael, I. Valiela.  Age structure of the Pleasant Bay population of Crepidula fornicata: A possible tool for estimating horseshoe crab age.  Biol. Bull.  201:296-297. pdf

Fila, L., R. H. Carmichael, A. Shriver, I. Valiela.  Stable N isotopic signatures in Bay scallop tissue, feces, and pseudofeces in Cape Cod estuaries subject to different N loads.  Biol. Bull. 201:294-296. pdf


Herrold R. E., A. Marchini, S. Fruehling, R. Longnecker. Glycoprotein 110 (gp110), the Epstein-Barr Virus Homolog of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B (gB), Is Essential for Epstein-Barr Replication In Vivo. J Virol. 70:2049-2054. pdf

Fruehling S., S. K. Lee, R. E. Herrold, B. Frech, G. Laux, E. Kremmer, F. A. Grasser, R. Longnecker. Identification of Latent Membrane Protein 2A (LMP2A) Domains Essential for the LMP2A Dominant-Negative Effect on B-lymphocyte Surface Immunoglobulin Signal Transduction. J Virol. 70:6216-6226. pdf

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